The Month of RABE-UL-AWWAL
The month of Rabi’ul-Awwal is the most signifi¬cant month in the Islamic history, because humanity has been blessed in this month by the birth of the Holy Prophet Muhammad . Before the birth of the Holy Prophet , not only the Arabian peninsula, but also the so-called civilized nations of Rome and Persia were drowned in the darkness of ignorance, supersti¬tions, oppression and unrest. The Holy Prophet came with the eternal truth ofTawhid (Oneness of Al¬lah), the only faith which provides a firm basis for the real concepts of knowledge, equity and peace. It was this faith which delivered humanity from ignorance and superstitions and spread the light of true knowl¬edge all over the world.
Thus the birth of the Holy Prophet was the most significant and the most remarkable event in hu¬man history. Had there been room in Islamic teach¬ings for the celebration of birthdays or anniversaries, the birthday of the Holy Prophet would have undoubtedly deserved it more than the birthday of any other person.
But the nature of Islamic teachings is such that their main stress is directed towards practicalism in¬stead of formalism. That is why, unlike Judaism, Christianity and Hinduism, there are very few festi¬vals in Islam which provides for only two Eids (Eidulfitr and Eidul-Adha) during the whole year. The dates of these two Eids do not correspond to the birth¬day of any of the outstanding persons of Islamic histo¬ry, nor can their origin be attributed to any particular event of history which had happened in these dates.
Both of these two Eids have been prescribed for paying gratitude to Allah on some happy events which take place every year. The first event is the comple¬tion of the fasts of Ramadan and the second event is the completion of Hajj, another form of worship re¬garded as one of the four pillars of Islam.
The manner prescribed for the celebration of these two Eids (Festivals) is also different from non-Islamic festivals. There are no formal processions, illumina¬tion or other activities showing formal happiness. On the contrary, there are prayer congregation and infor¬mal mutual visits to each other which can give real happiness instead of its symbols only.
On the other hand, Islam has not prescribed any festival for the birthday of any person, however great or significant he may be. The prophets of Allah are the persons of the highest status amongst all human be¬ings. But the Holy Prophet or his noble companions never observed the birthday or anniversary of any of them. Even the birthday of the Holy Prophet which was the most happy day for the whole mankind was never celebrated by the Holy Prophet himself, nor by his blessed Companions.
The Companions of the Holy Prophet remained alive after him for about a century, but despite their unparalleled and profound love towards the Holy Prophet , they never celebrated the birthday or the death anniversary of the Holy Prophet . Instead, they devoted their lives for promoting the cause of Is¬lam, for bringing his teachings into practice, for con¬veying his message to the four corners of the world and for establishing the Islamic order in every walk of life.
In fact, commemorating the birth of a distin¬guished person has never been prescribed by any re¬ligion attributing itself to divine revelation. It was originally a custom prevalent in pagan communities only. Even Christmas, the famous Christian feast commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ finds no mention in the Bible or in the early Christian writ¬ings. It was only in the 4th century after the ascen¬sion of Jesus Christ that Christmas was recognized as a regular Christian feast. To quote the Collier’s Ency¬clopedia:
“It is impossible to determine the exact date of the birth of Christ, either from the evidence of the gospels, or from any sound tradition. Dur¬ing the first three centuries of the Christian era there was considerable opposition in the Church to the pagan custom of celebrating birthdays, al¬though there is some indication that a purely re¬ligious commemoration of the birth of Christ was included in the feast of Epiphany. Clement of Alexandria mentions the existence of the feast in Egypt about the year A.D. 200 and we have some evidence that it was observed on various dates in scattered areas. After the triumph of Constantine, the Church at Rome assigned De¬cember 25 as the date for the celebration of the feast, possibly about A.D. 320 or 353. By the end of the fourth century the whole Christian world was celebrating Christmas on that day, with the exception of the Eastern Churches, where it was celebrated on January 6. The choice of December 25 was probably influenced by the fact that on this day the Romans cele¬brated the Mithraic feast of the Sun-God, and that the Saturnalia also came at this time.” ( Collier’s Encyclopedia 1984 ed. v. 6, p. 403).
A similar description of the origin of Christmas is found in the Encyclopedia Britannica with some more details. Its following passage will throw more light on the point:
“Christmas was not among the earliest festivals of the Church, and before the 5th century there was no general consensus of opinion as to when it should come in the calendar, whether on Jan. 6, March 25 or Dec. 25. The earliest identifica- tion of Dec. 25 with the birthday of Christ is in a passage, otherwise unknown and probably spurious, of the philos of Antioch (c.180), pre¬served in Latin by the Magdeburyg centuriators (i, 3, 118), to the effect that the Gauls contended that since they celebrated the birth of Lord on Dec. 25, so they ought to celebrate the resurrec¬tion on March 25. A passage, almost certainly interpolated, in ‘Hippelates’ (c. 202) commentary on Daniel iv, 23, says that Jesus was born at Bethlehem on Wednesday, Dec. 25, in the 42nd year of Augustus, but he mentions no feast, and such a feast, indeed, would conflict with the then orthodox ideas. As late as 245 Origin (horn. viii on Leviticus) repudiated the idea of keeping the birthday of Christ “as if he were a king Pha¬raoh”. (Britannica, 1953 ed. v. 5, p.642)
These two extracts are more than sufficient to prove the following points:
1. The commemoration of birthdays was originally a pagan custom, never recognized by a divine scrip¬ ture or a prophetic teaching.
2. The exact date of the Birth of Sayyidna ‘Isa is unknown and impossible to be ascertained.
3. The commemoration of the birth of Jesus Christ was not a recognized practice in the early centuries of the Christian history. It was in the 4th or 5th century that it was rec¬ ognized as a religious feast, and that, too, under the influence of the pagans who worshipped Sun-God.
5. There was a strong opposition against the com¬memorating the birthday by the early Christian schol¬ars like Origin, on the ground that it is originally a custom of pagans and idolaters.
In original Islamic resources also we cannot find any instruction about the celebration of birthdays or death anniversaries. Many Companions of the Holy Prophet passed away during his life-time. His be¬loved wife Saj’yidah Khadijah رضي الله عنها passed away in Makkah. His beloved uncle Sayyidna Hamzah was brutally slaughtered during the battle of Uhud. But the Holy Prophet never observed their birthday or their death anniversaries, nor did he ever advise his followers to celebrate his own birthday in Rabi’ul-Awwal.
The reason for abstinence from such celebrations is that they divert the attention of people from the real teachings of Islam towards the observance of some formal activities only. Initially, these celebra¬tions may begin with utmost piety and with a bona fide intention to pay homage to a pious person. Yet the experience shows that the celebration is ultimate¬ly mixed up with an element of merrymaking and re¬joicing and is generally confused with secular festi¬vals, and the secular, and often sinful, activities creep into it gradually.
4. The example of Christmas will again be relevant.
This Christian feast was originally innovated to com¬memorate the birth of Jesus Christ and, of course, to memorize his teachings. But once the occasion has been recognized as a feast, all the secular elements of public festivals crept in. The following quotation from the Encyclopedia Britannia is worth attention:
“For several centuries Christmas was solely a church anniversary observed by religious servic¬es. But as Christianity spread among the people of pagan lands, many of the practices of the win¬ter solstice were blended with those of Chris¬tianity because of the liberal ruling of Gregory I, the great, and the cooperation of the missionar¬ies. Thus, Christmas became both religious and secular in its celebration, at times reverent, at others gay.”
Then, what kind of activities have been adopted to celebrate Christmas is mentioned in the next para¬graphs of which the following extract is more perti¬nent here to quote:
“Merrymaking came to have a share in Christ¬mas observance through popular enthusiasm even while emphasis was on the religious phase. … In the wholly decked great halls of the feudal lords, whose hospitality extended to all their friends, tenants and household, was sailing, feasting, singing and games, dancing, masque¬rading and mummers presenting pantomimes and masques were all part of the festivities.” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1953 v. 5, p. 643)
This is enough to show as to how an apparently innocent feast of reverence was converted into a secu¬lar festival where the merrymaking and seeking en¬joyment by whatever means took preference over all the religious and spiritual activities.
Being fully aware of this human psychology, Islam has never prescribed, nor encouraged the observance of birthdays and anniversaries, and when such cele-brations are observed as a part of the religion they are totally forbidden. The Holy Qur’an has clearly pro¬nounced on the occasion of the last Hajj of the Holy Prophet :
اَلْيَوْمَ اَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِيْنَكُمْ
Today, I have completed (the teachings of) your religion.
It means that all the teachings of Islam were com¬municated to the Muslims through the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet . No one is al¬lowed after it to add any thing to them as a part of re¬ligion. What was not a part of religion during the life¬time of the Holy Prophet can never form part of it at any following occasion. Such additions are termed by the Holy Prophet as Bid’ah or inno¬vation.
Thus, the observance of the 12th of Rabi’ul-Awwal as a religious feast is not warranted by any verse of the Holy Qur’an or by any teaching of the Holy Prophet . Had it been a part of the religion it would have been clearly ordered or practiced by the Holy Prophet and his blessed companions or, at least, by their immediate pupils. But no example of the cele¬bration of the occasion can be traced out in the early centuries of the Islamic history. It was after centuries that some monarchs started observing the 12th of Rabi’ul-Awwal as the birthday of the Holy Prophet without a sound religious basis, and the congregations in the name of Maulood or Milad were held where the history of the birth of the Holy Prophet used to be narrated. The observance of the 12th of this month as the birthday of the Holy Prophet is not only an in¬novation having no basis in the Islamic teachings, but the accuracy of this date as the real birthday of the Holy Prophet is also very much doubted. There are different dates suggested in different traditions, and the majority of the authentic scholars is inclined to hold that the Holy Prophet was born on the 9th of Rabi’ul-Awwal. This difference of opinion is another evidence to prove that the observance of the birthday is not a part of the religion; otherwise its exact date would have been preserved with accuracy.
The life of the Holy Prophet is, no doubt, the most important source of guidance for all the Mus¬lims, and every Muslim is under an obligation to learn and study the events of his Ife, and to follow the prac¬tical example set by him in every sphere of life. The narration of his pious biography (the Seerah) in itself is a pious act which invites the divine blessings, but the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah have not prescribed a particular time or method for it. This pious act should be performed in all the months and in all the times. The month of Rabi’ul-Awwal has not been tak¬en by the Shariah as a special season for holding such congregations to commemorate the birth or life of the Holy Prophet . It is thus an innovation (Bid’ah) to restrict the Seerah meetings to the month of Rabi’ul-Awwal only, or to believe that the meetings held in this month are worthy of more reward than the meet¬ings held on any other date during the year. In fact, the Companions of the Holy Prophet used to com¬memorate the life of the Holy Prophet throughout the year, not only by studying and conveying his mes¬sage to others, but also by following his way of life and acting upon his teachings in each and every branch of their activities, and this is exactly what a Muslim is required and supposed to do. By this we do not mean that the Seerah meetings should not be held in the month of Rabi’ul-Awwal. The point is only that they should not be restricted to it, nor should it be believed that the Shariah has laid any kind of emphasis on holding such meetings in this particular month.
Another point which should always be kept in mind while holding such meetings that they must be in complete conformity with the rules of Shariah. A Muslim is supposed to abide by the rules of Shariah in all his activities. But at least the meetings held in the memory of the Holy Prophet should be free from all the acts forbidden by the Shariah.
It is often observed, especially in the Western countries, that the people hold the Seerah meetings where men and women sit together without observing the rules of hijab prescribed by the Shariah. The teachings of the Holy Prophet are obviously against such mixed gatherings. How can a Seerah meeting bring fruits where such fundamental teachings of the Shariah are openly violated?
In some meetings the Na’ts (poems) in the memo¬ry of the Holy Prophet are recited by the women be¬fore the male audience, sometimes with music, which is totally against the instructions of the Holy Prophet . It is clearly prohibited by the Shariah to hold such meetings or to participate in them, because it is not only a violation of the Shariah rules, but it amounts to outraging the sanctity of the Seerah of the Holy Prophet .
All other activities, often practiced on the twelfth of Rabi’ul-Awwal, like holding processions, constructing the artificial tombs of the Holy Proph¬et and illumination of the buildings and the roads are not warranted by any rule of the Shariah. Rather they are based on conscious or unconscious imitation of certain other religions. No example of such activities can be traced out from the earlier Islamic history.
What is really important with regard to the Holy Prophet is, firstly, to follow his teachings, and sec¬ondly to make his pious Seerah available to every Muslim, to preserve it in the hearts of the Muslims from the very childhood, to educate the family mem¬bers to run their lives according to it and to hold it as the most glorious example of the human conduct the universe has ever witnessed – and all this with ut¬most love and reverence, not manifested by some for¬mal activities only, but also through actual behaviour of following the Sunnah. This cannot be done by merely holding processions and illuminating the walls. This requires constant and consistent efforts and a meaningful programme of education and train¬ing.
The Month of
This month is also called “Rabi’ul-‘akhir”. No spe¬cific function or worship has been prescribed by the Shari’ah in this month. However, some people take the llth of this month as the anniversary of Shaikh Abdulqadir al-Jilani رحمة الله عليه , the great sufi and one of the most pious persons of our history. On this as¬sumption, these people cook some special types of meals and distribute them among their acquaintants. Some of them believe that this practice pleases the soul of the Shaikh رحمة الله عليه and he will help us in ful¬filling our worldly needs or in reaching our mundane or spiritual goals.
This practice is totaly baseless for a number of reasons:
Firstly, it is not historically proved with certainty that the Shaikh رحمة الله عليه died on the 11th of this month. Some historians claim that he died on 9th and some of them hold that he died on 17th.
Secondly, even if it is proved that he had died on llth of this month, the observation of anniversaries is not recognized by the Shari’ah, as we have explained it with more details earlier while discussing the month of Rabi’ul-awwal.
Thirdly, if the practice is based on the belief that the soul of the Shaikh will be pleased by it and will help us in our worldly affairs, it is totally an erroneous idea and may amount to ‘shirk’.
Fourthly, even if these acts are performed for the purpose of ‘Isdl-al-thawab only, there is no reason why a specific date is fixed for this purpose, and why the people not observing it are blamed and reproached.
Fifthly, the ‘Isal-al-thawab’ can be conceived where an ‘ibadah (act of worship) is done like sada-qah, but here in this practice normally the meal is dis¬tributed among the well-off relatives or friends and not among the poor. It means that there is no inten¬tion to perform an ‘ibadah.
Sixthly, if some mundane benefits are sought by this practice, no thawab is supposed to be achieved. How can it be an act of’lsal-al-thawdb?
In short, looked at from any angle, this custom does not fit in the recognized principles of Shari’ah. Therefore, it should be abandoned in any case.
It must be remembered, however, that what we have said does not mean that one cannot make an ‘lsal-al-thawab to the Shaikh Abdulqadir Jilani. In fact the ‘isal-al-thawab is a recognized practice in Sha¬ri’ah. It becomes more commendable if it is done in fa¬vor of a pious person, like Shaikh Abdulqadir Jilani. But it should not be restricted to a particular date or a particular act. A Muslim can make ‘isal-al-thawab to the Shaikh any day and through any act of worship, like salah, fasting, charity etc.
The Month of
Both these months have no special rules, nor are there any specific customs practiced by the Muslim people in these months.